Surpass design challenges
with ease using
Work with its powerful
tools and solver technology
to deliver accurate and
applications using the
Application Builder and
deploy them within
your organization and
to customers worldwide
with a local installation of
Beneft from the power of
multiphysics today, request
a live demo comsol.com
The evolution of computational tools for
numerical simulation of physics-based
systems has reached a major milestone.
with COMSOL Multiphysics®
© Copyright 2017 COMSOL
example, our engineers developed processes for transparent conducting oxide (TCO)
annealing. The most prominent TCO is
I TO, a transparent conductor that is used
for electrodes on touchscreens, OLED or
LED displays, and thin film photovoltaics.
Indium is an increasingly expensive material, so any savings of ITO have commercial consequences.
We also developed a new process for
improving ITO performance on glass,
where one scan increases the conduc-
tivity up to 100% without changing
the glass features. This very rapid ther-
mal processing (vRTP) activates within
a 1 ms dwell time up to twice as many
dopants than with regular isothermal
heating, resulting in higher electron
mobility and higher concentration of
free carriers. After finding the right
laser parameters in the lab, the pro-
cess was scaled using modular lasers
and optics integrated in very compact
boxes (see Fig. 2).
Each box produced a 300-mm-long and
300-µm-wide line using an integrated 14
k W laser diode, with some space for more
power in the future. Such boxes can be
combined to extend the line profile to one
or more meters. In the final setup, the costs
of the laser system were <$0.30 per processed square meter.
Heating in such processes is so fast
that the bulk carrier is not modified.
In extreme examples, laser lines can be
used to meld platinum on paper with-
out burning it. The process is completed
before the heat is transferred in critical
amounts. And, as opposed to conventional point-scanning technologies, it is
simple to scale up.
Advanced polymer welding
The automotive industry has driven laser
technology from the early days. While 20
years ago, a laser-welded car body was a
statement about technology leadership,
the question today is, are there any cars
made without lasers?
Now, the challenge for laser technol-
ogy in automotive is the great variety
of materials used in manufacturing. For
example, welding of plastic on plastic
requires very special laser parameters.
Conducting such a process with a gal-
vo-scanner requires high heat capaci-
ty in the material, whereas a laser line
needs only to be adapted to the 2D or
3D contour of the weld seam.
We have developed a process in which
a 3D laser line is projected onto the work-
piece to weld polymer parts, and is controlled inline. The temperature along the
weld seams is observed and the laser pow-
er can be controlled accordingly, leading to perfect seams (pressure resistant
to > 30 bar) and passing all quality monitoring. As opposed to scanning solu-
tions, this process requires no moving
parts. Welding is performed by a cus-
tomized 3D laser line contour that can